Rich, great points!
I’d be the first to admit that when presented with shiny new technology, I am predisposed to expect that the new technology will perform better than the old. New smart phones for the past six years have almost always been better than their predecessors. Can the same be said for new educational technologies? The short answer is no, new educational technologies alone do lead to better student outcomes.
When trying to determine if a technology contributes to the effectiveness of instruction, the issue of “no difference expected” made famous by the Clark, Kozma (Kozma, 1994) debate needs to be addressed. Clark (Clark, 1994) argued that “media are mere vehicles that deliver instruction” and that “student achievement [is not influenced by a new delivery technology like video] any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition” (p. 22). Kozma (1994) countered that while Clark’s argument is…
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